A Complete course in canning and related processes by Anthony Lopez

By Anthony Lopez

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Extra resources for A Complete course in canning and related processes

Example text

Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium. The spores of this organism are also not particularly heat resistant. Presence of this organism in large numbers can result in two types of food poisoning illnesses: a protein toxin that causes diarrhoeal symptoms, similar to those caused by C. perfringens, and a heat-stable peptide that causes vomiting symptoms, similar to those caused by St. aureus. g. milk, meat, fish, and vegetables), while the vomiting type is associated with consumption of rice Microbiology of canned foods 19 products and other starchy foods like potatoes and pasta.

E. an offspring, they are a minimised dormant state of the bacterium. Endospores have a central core of cytoplasm containing DNA and ribosomes that is protected by an impermeable and rigid coat. They show no detectable metabolism and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of UV light, gamma radiation, detergents, disinfectants, heat, pressure, and desiccation. In this dormant state, bacteria may remain viable for thousands of years and can even survive exposure to the vacuum and radiation in space.

In 1961 flame sterilization (using direct gas flame heating) was introduced, as was the continuous hydrostatic pressure sterilizer. Today, with computers being able to control equipment we have many more options and more precise control. There are combinations of steam and air, raining water, and rotation. All of these developments have as their objective to improve temperature distribution and product heating. Modern retorts can process at temperatures up to 145 °C, yielding faster throughput.

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