Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs an important position in lots of disciplines, significantly machine Programming, typical and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced platforms, man made Intelligence and computer studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This booklet first offers the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in a number of disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and ameliorations. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to trap them. This version makes the idea of abstraction simply appropriate by way of the advent of a collection of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diversified domain names and functions. it's the impression of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, advanced structures and computing device studying which creates the center of the booklet. A common framework, in keeping with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.

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2. Colburn and Shute [111] make a point is differentiating Computer Science from empirical sciences, because the latter ones have concrete models in the form of experimental apparata as well as abstract mathematical models, whereas the former has only software models, which are not physically concrete. , the use of formalism), and the objectives. The main reason of abstraction in Mathematics are inference structures (theorems and their proofs), while in Computer Science it is interaction patterns (pieces of software).

It is considered as a first step toward abstraction in painting [A color version of this figure is reported in Fig. H2 of Appendix H] Thus, abstract art does not aim at representing the world as it appears, but rather at composing works that are purposefully non-representational and subjective. The use of non-figurative patterns is not new, as many of them appear on pottery and textiles from pre-historical times. However, these patterns were elements of decoration, and did not have necessarily the ambition to be called “art”.

An examples of Malevich’ work is reported in Fig. 4. 30 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines Fig. 4 K. Malevich’s Portrait of Ivan Klioune (1911). The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg [A color version of this figure is reported in Fig. H3 of Appendix H] In Fig. 5 an even more abstract painting, by the contemporary French painter Pierre Soulages, is reported. He says: “J’aime l’autorit e´ du noir. C’est une couleur qui ne transige pas. Une couleur violente mais qui incite pourtant a` l’int eriorisation.

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