By Giuliano Bonoli;Toshimitsu Shinkawa
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Extra info for Ageing and Pension Reform Around the World: Evidence from Eleven Countries
Domestic dynamics, like the profound reconfiguration of the political and institutional arenas of the early 1990s, facilitated these processes that largely altered actors’ preferences and the overall stake of the game. 5 Learning processes and collective ‘puzzling’ helped to overcome the long-lasting stalemate in the pension field as well as the dynamics of ‘powering’ and the political exchanges noted above. 2. 5 per cent in 1991. The situation was even worse in the light of the European convergence criteria, laid down in Maastricht in 1992, which prescribed the target of 60 per cent for the debt/GDP ratio and 3 per cent for the deficit/GDP one.
Korea succeeded in 1988 and quickly moved toward retrenchment, entering in the 1990s, while Taiwan is at a stalemate, waiting for another chance to open a policy window. Compared with these two cases, Japan experienced democratisation and political competition for pension expansion a number of decades earlier and has been engaged in retrenchment since the mid-1980s. Perhaps one distinguishing feature of East Asian pension policy is the fact that developments in pension policy take place in a shorter period of time, a few decades or less, compared with the long history of Western pension systems, which for most countries spans over nearly a century.
1986), ‘The politics of blame avoidance’, Journal of Public Policy, 6(4), 371–398. White, G. and Goodman R. (1998), ‘Welfare orientalism and the search for an East Asian welfare model’, in R. Goodman, G. White and H. Kwon (eds), The East Asian Welfare Model, London: Routledge, 3–24. World Bank (2003), World Development Indicators, CD-ROM, Washington, DC: World Bank. 2. Reconfiguring Italian pensions: From policy stalemate to comprehensive reforms1 Maurizio Ferrera and Matteo Jessoula 1. INTRODUCTION Italy experienced an early start in the field of pensions, introducing in 1919 a compulsory funded scheme for all the employees whose earnings were under a certain threshold.