Agriculture Fact Book 1999 (Agriculture Factbook, 1999) by US Department of Agriculture

By US Department of Agriculture

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S. farms are run by households that depend mainly on off-farm income. About 43 percent of operators reported a nonfarm major occupation in 1996, and another 19 percent were retired. Most operators of larger farms reported farming as their major occupation, and their households were more likely to depend on farm income. Average household income and dependence on off-farm income also varies among types of farm households. For example, 8 percent reported negative household income for 1997. On average, these households lost $47,566 from farming during the year.

Paperboard boxes and containers are the largest packaging cost, and comprise approximately 40 percent of total packaging expenses. Metal cans are the second largest packaging expense, making up T 14 99 01 Linking Consumers F 8/16/00 2:16 PM Page 15 Figure 1-11. 5¢ Marketing bill about 20 percent of total food packaging expenses. The costs of plastic containers and wrapping materials account for another 20 percent of total food packaging expenses. Miscellaneous packaging materials such as glass containers and metal foil account for the remaining 20 percent of total packaging costs.

A mix of print and broadcast media are used to promote food industry products. In recent years, food service and food retail firms have experienced the largest increases in advertising expenditures. Depreciation, rent, and repairs together came to $53 billion and accounted for 9 percent of the 1998 consumer food dollar. The food service sector incurred about 40 percent of these costs, while food stores made up about a quarter of the total. Manufacturing and wholesaling establishments together accounted for the remaining 35 percent.

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