An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: by Toshi H. Arimura

By Toshi H. Arimura

Focusing on pollution, power potency and weather swap, this publication offers an creation to Japan’s environmental guidelines and laws, and provides fiscal analyses and RIAs (Regulatory influence research) of environmental rules carried out or deliberate by way of the nationwide and native governments. the hole bankruptcy stories environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting cars in metropolitan parts. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan executive rules which calls for set up of toxins keep watch over gear in older vans that fail to satisfy emission criteria. bankruptcy four strains the influence of the NOx-PM Act at the used automobile industry and used automobile exports. bankruptcy five provides an fiscal research of a street toll aid, revealing an unforeseen destructive social effect: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters tackle regulations and laws relating to power potency and weather switch bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended a variety of instances to handle weather switch. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the impression of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate momentary monetary affects in every one quarter. additionally offered this is an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the effect of the thought on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the function and obstacles of monetary versions for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse fuel) emission goal in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this can be the 1st ebook to judge jap environmental regulations from an fiscal standpoint, utilizing various present quantitative techniques. Its findings and recommendations will gain scholars, coverage makers and govt officers in constructing and built nations the place the general public faces comparable environmental problems.

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The Act was revised in June 2001. 7 See the Ministry of Environment (2005) for further details on the enforcement areas and regulated vehicles. 8 In 2001, “the 2005 emissions standards” were issued, prohibiting the use and sale of vehicles that do not meet the standards imposed in 2002 and thereafter. 2 A Brief History of Japanese Air Pollution Regulation: Background of the VTR Tokyo 23 Osaka Nagoya Fig. 06 PM concentration (mg/m3) Fig. 3 2 Ex Ante Policy Evaluation of the Vehicle Type Regulation Compliance Methods This section provides an overview of the methods for complying with the VTR.

Estimates of MEC are known to be uncertain, as the causal relationship between pollutants and health has not been scientifically demonstrated in some cases. Thus, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to account for this uncertainty. The objective of this analysis was to examine how the estimates change given a range of important yet uncertain parameters. , the upper bound). We also provide the average of the two estimates. NETCEN (2002) reports the MEC of NOx in 2000 in 15 European Union countries.

14 Using a discount rate of 3 %, we computed TC and found a value of 521 billion yen in all enforcement areas. 4 presents the TC by vehicle type. 1. Many vehicles in the data are missing emissions codes: 9 % (350,000 vehicles) of the vehicles in the enforcement areas do not have emissions codes. For these vehicles, we inferred the number of regulated vehicles based on the proportion of the regulated vehicles in the vehicles with emissions codes. We adopted this procedure for each combination of initial registration years, areas of registration, types of vehicles surveyed in the database, and fuel types.

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